BABL partners with Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, UT Southwestern Medical Center, and UC Riverside under a NIH U54 Center grant to investigate translational electrophysiological biomarkers in Fragile X Syndrome, primarily focusing on sensory processing, and employing cutting edge signal processing, basic and clinical neuroscience methodology.

Additional projects under the U54 Center umbrella include comparing neural phenotypes across related conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, and evaluating neural processing biomarkers related to the fMR1 premutation.

The BABL team served as the EEG lead coordinating site for experimental design, site standardization, and data processing for the NIH NeuroNEXT FXLearn trial, which studies the impact of a novel drug and language learning intervention on language skills in young children with Fragile X Syndrome. Primary results of this study were recently published in Journal of Clinical Investigation with EEG results to follow.

BABL handles clinical trial EEG for a number of treatment trials in neurodevelopmental disorders, including the recently completed Phase II trial of BPN14770 by Tetra Therapeutics, which showed positive results for cognitive and biomarker outcomes and moved into Phase III this year:

In line with our interest in in auditory processing and sensory sensitivities, BABL is conducting novel biomarker research to examine the neurophysiological correlates of misophonia and develop potential treatments for this condition. What is misophonia? Check it out here:

Neurodevelopment is a complex process that can be disrupted in a number of ways. BABL members not only study neurodevelopmental disorders but also environmental and multi-generational impacts on neurodevelopment and child well-being. We partner with the OUHSC EmBRACER Center, Center for Child Abuse and Neglect, Child Study Center, and the OU Big Idea Challenge Team, led by OU Sociology, to investigate early biological and behavioral impacts of adverse childhood experiences, as well as how these effects continue to impact well-being into adulthood.



Berry-Kravis, E., Abbeduto, L., Hagerman, R., Coffey, C.S., Cudkowicz, M., Erickson, C., McDuffie, A., Hessl, D., Ethridge, L., Kaufmann, W.E., Friedmann, K., Bullard, L., Hoffmann, A., Staley, K., Klements, D., Moshinsky, M., Harkey, B., Long, J., Fedler, J.,  Klingner, E., Ecklund, D., Costigan, M., Huff, T., Pearson, B., and the NeuroNEXT FXLEARN Investigators. (2023). Effects of AFQ056 on Language Learning in Fragile X Syndrome: The FXLEARN Trial. Accepted for publication, Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Ethridge, L. E., Auerbach, B. D., Contractor, A., Ethell, I. M., McCullagh, E. A., & Pedapati, E. V. (2023). Editorial: Neural markers of sensory processing in development. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, doi:

Norris, J.E., Schmitt, L.M., De Stefano, L.A., Pedapati, E.V., Erickson, C.A., Sweeney, J.A., & Ethridge, L.E. (2023). Neuropsychiatric feature-based subgrouping reveals neural sensory processing spectrum in female FMR1 premutation carriers: A pilot study. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 17:2.


Norris, J.E., De Stefano, L.A., Schmitt, L.M., Pedapati, E.V., Erickson, C.A., Sweeney, J.A., & Ethridge, L.E. (2022). Hemispheric utilization of alpha oscillatory dynamics as a unique biomarker of neural compensation in females with fragile X syndrome. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 13(23): 3389-3402.

Rosen, A.F.G., Auger, E., Woodruff, N., Mado Proverbio, A., Song, H., Ethridge, L.E. & Bard, D. (2022). The multiple indicator multiple cause model for cognitive neuroscience: An analytic tool which emphasizes the behavior in brain-behavior relationships. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 943613.

Schmitt, L.M., Dominick, K.C., Liu, R., Pedapati, E.V., Ethridge, L.E., Smith, E., Sweeney, J.A., & Erickson, C.A. (2022). Evidence for Three Subgroups of Female FMR1 Premutation Carriers Defined by Distinct Neuropsychiatric Features: A Pilot Study. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 15, 797546.

Auger, E., Berry-Kravis, E., & Ethridge, L.E. (2022). Independent Evaluation of the Harvard Automated Processing Pipeline for Electroencephalography using Multi-Site EEG Data from Children with Fragile X Syndrome. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 37: 109501.

Bell, K., McMillin, K, & Ethridge, L.E. (2022). Bereft and Left: The Interplay Between Insecure Attachment, Isolation, and Neurobiology.  Developmental Review, 64: 101020.

Norris, L.E., Kimball, S.H., Nemri, D.C., Ethridge, L.E. (2022). Toward a multidimensional understanding of misophonia using cluster-based phenotyping. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 16:832516.

Pedapati, E., Schmitt, L., Liu, R., Ethridge, L., Smith, E., Sweeney, J., Shaffer, R., Dominick, K., Gilbert, D., Wu, S., Horn, P., Binder, D., Lamy, M., Axford, M., Miyakoshi, M., Erickson, C. (2022). Neocortical Localization and Thalamocortical Modulation of Neuronal Hyperexcitability in Fragile X Syndrome. Communications Biology, 5(1): 442.

Jonak, C.R., Pedapati, E.V., Schmitt, L.M., Assad, S.A., Sandhu, M.S., De Stefano, L.A., Ethridge, L.E., Razak, K.A., Sweeney, J.A., Binder, D.K., Erickson, C.A. (2022). Baclofen-associated neurophysiologic target engagement across species in fragile x syndrome. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 14(1): 1-15..

Pedapati, E.V., Sweeney, J.A. Schmitt, L.M, Ethridge, L.E. Miyakoshi, M., Liu, R., Smith, E., Shaffer, R.C., Wu, S.V., Gilbert, D.L., Horn, P.S., Buckley, A., Erickson, C.A. (2022). Empirical Frequency Bound Derivation Reveals Prominent Mid-Frontal Alpha Associated with Neurosensory Dysfunction in Fragile X Syndrome. Preprint. medRxiv.

Pedapati, E.V., Ethridge, L.E., De Stefano, L., Liu, Y., Miyakoshi, M., Sweeney, J.A., Schmitt, L.M., Gilbert, D.L., Wu, S.W., Liu, R., Smith, E., Shaffer, R.C., Dominick, K.C., Horn, P.S., Binder, D., Erikson, C.A. (2022). Temporal and frontal lobe contributions to neural synchronization dysfunction and auditory attention in Fragile X Syndrome Preprint. medRxiv.


Mariscal, M.G., Berry-Kravis, E., Buxbaum, J.D., Ethridge, L.E., Filip-Dhima, R., Foss-Feig, J.H., Kolevzon, A., Modi, M.E., Mosconi, M.W., Nelson, C.A., Powell, C.M. Siper, P.M., Soorya, L., Thaliath, A., Thurm, A., Zhang, B., Sahin, M. Levin, A.R. (2021). Shifted phase of EEG cross-frequency coupling in individuals with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome. Molecular Autism 12(1): 1-12.

Berry-Kravis, E.M., Harnett, M.D., Reines, S.A., Reese, M.A., Ethridge, L.E. Outterson, A.H., Michalak, C., Furman, J., & Gurney, M. (2021). Benefit of BPN14770 for cognition, language, and daily function in adults with fragile x syndrome: A randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 clinical trial. Nature Medicine, 27, 862-870.


Ethridge, L.E., Thaliath, A., Kraff, J., Nijhawan, K., Berry-Kravis, E., (2020). Development of neural response to novel sounds in fragile x syndrome: potential biomarkers. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 125 (6), 449-464.

Reese, M., Bryant, D., Ethridge, L. (2020). Biomarkers for moral cognition: Current status and future prospects for neurotransmitters and neuropeptides.Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 113, 88-97.


Ethridge, L.E., De Stefano, L.A., Schmitt, L.M., Woodruff, N.E., Brown, K.L., Tran, M., Wang, J., Pedapati, E., Erickson, C.A., Sweeney, J.A. (2019) Auditory EEG biomarkers in fragile x syndrome: Clinical relevance. Frontiers in Intergrative Neuroscience 13, 60.

De Stefano, L.A., Schmitt, L.M., White, S.P., Mosconi, M.W., Sweeney, J.A., Ethridge, L.E. (2019). Developmental effects on auditory neural oscillatory synchronization abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 13, 34.


Hudgens-Haney, M.E., Ethridge, L.E., Knight, J.B., McDowell, J.E., Keedy, S.K., Pearlson, G.D., Tamminga, C.A., Keshavan, M.S., Sweeney, J.A., Clementz, B.A. (2018).Psychosis subgroups differ in intrinsic neural activity but not task-specific processing. Schizophrenia Research,, 195: 222-230.

Shou, G, Mosconi, M, Ethridge, L, Sweeney, J, Ding, L. (2018) Resting-state Gamma-band EEG Abnormalities in Autism. Accepted paper for Proceedings of 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.

Clementz, B.A., Sweeney, J.A, Hamm, J.P., Ivleva, E.I., Ethridge, L.E., Pearlson, G.D., Keshavan, M., Tamminga, C.A. (2018). Identification of distinct psychosis biotypes using brain-based biomarkers. Focus, 16(2), 225-236. * this is a reprint of the 2016 article by the same name in a continuing medical education journal for Influential Publications in Psychiatry.

Sahin, M., Jones, S.R., Sweeney, J.A., Berry-Kravis, E., Connors, B.W., Ewen, J.B., Hartman, A.L., Levin, A.R., Potter, W.Z., Mamounas, L.A. on behalf of the Biomarker Workshop Faculty (in press). Discovering translational biomarkers in neurodevelopmental disorders. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery.


Wang, J., Ethridge, L.E., Mosconi, M.W., White, S.P., Binder, D.K., Pedapati, E.V., Erickson, C. A., Byerly, M.J., Sweeney, J.A. (2017). A resting EEG study of neocortical hyperexcitability and altered functional connectivity in Fragile X Syndrome. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 9:11.

Hudgens-Haney, M.E., Ethridge, L.E., Knight, J.B., McDowell, J.E., Keedy, S.K., Pearlson, G.D., Tamminga, C.A., Keshavan, M.S., Sweeney, J.A., Clementz, B.A. (2017). Intrinsic neural activity differences among psychotic illnesses. Psychophysiology,54(8), 1223:1238.

Shou, G., Mosconi, M.W., Wang, J., Ethridge, L.E., Sweeney, J.A., Ding, L. (2017). Electrophysiological signatures of atypical intrinsic brain connectivity networks in autism. Journal of Neural Engineering, 14(4):046010.

Ethridge, L.E., White, S.P., Mosconi, M.W., Wang, J., Pedapati, E.V., Erickson, C., Byerly, M.J., Sweeney, J.A. (2017). Neural synchronization deficits linked to cortical hyper-excitability and auditory sensitivity in Fragile X Syndrome. Molecular Autism, 8:22.


Ethridge, L.E., White, S.P., Mosconi, M.W., Wang, J. Byerly, M.J., Sweeney, J.A. (2016). Reduced habituation of auditory evoked potentials indicate cortical hyperexcitability in Fragile X Syndrome. Translational Psychiatry, 6: e787.

Clementz, B.A., Sweeney, J.A, Hamm, J.P., Ivleva, E.I., Ethridge, L.E., Pearlson, G.D., Keshavan, M., Tamminga, C.A. (2016). Identification of distinct psychosis biotypes using brain-based biomarkers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(4): 373-384.


Ethridge, L.E. Soilleux, M., Nakonezny, P.A., Reilly, J.L., Hill, S.K., Keefe, R.S.E., Gershon, E.S., Pearlson, G., Tamminga, C.A., Keshavan, M.S., Sweeney, J.A. (2015). Behavioral response inhibition in psychotic disorders: Diagnostic specificity, familiality, and relation to generalized cognitive deficit. Schizophrenia Research, 159(2-3): 491-498.

Ethridge, L.E., Hamm, J.P., Pearlson, G.D., Tamminga, C.A., Sweeney, J.A., Keshavan, M.S., Clementz, B.A. (2015). Event-related potential and time-frequency endophenotypes for schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 77(2): 127-136.

Narayanan, B., Ethridge, L.E., O’Neil, K., Dunn, S., Mathew, I., Tandon, N., Calhoun, V.D., Ruano, G., Kocherla, M., Windemuth, A., Clementz, B.A., Tamminga, C.A., Sweeney, J.A., Keshavan, M.S., Pearlson, G.D. Genetic sources of subcomponents of event-related potential in the dimension of psychosis analyzed from the BSNIP study. American Journal of Psychiatry, epub ahead of print DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13101411.


Hamm, J.P., Ethridge, L.E., Boutros, N.N., Keshavan, M.S., Sweeney, J.A., Pearlson, G.D., Tamminga, C.A., Clementz, B.A. (2014) Diagnostic Specificity and Familiality of Early versus Late Evoked Potentials to Auditory Paired-Stimuli across the Schizophrenia-Bipolar Psychosis Spectrum. Psychophysiology, 51(4): 348-357.

Ethridge, L.E., Malone, S.M., Iacono, W.G., Clementz, B.A. (2013) Genetic influences on composite neural activations supporting visual target identification. Biological Psychology, 92(2):329-341.

Hamm, J.P., Ethridge, L.E., Shapiro, J.R., Pearlson, G., Tamminga, C.A., Sweeney, J.A., Keshavan, M.S., Thaker, G., Clementz, B.A. (2013) Family history of psychosis moderates auditory neural abnormalities in non-psychotic bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders,15: 774-786.

Wang, J., Barstein, J., Ethridge, L.E., Mosconi, M., Takarae, Y., Sweeney, J.A. (2013) Resting state EEG abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 5(1):24. *(“Highly accessed” designation awarded through BioMed Central)

Hamm, J.P., Ethridge, L.E., Shapiro, J.R., Stevens, M.C., Boutros, N.N., Summerfelt, A.T., Keshavan, M.S., Sweeney, J.A., Pearlson, G., Tamminga, C.A., Thaker, G., Clementz, B.A. (2012) Spatio-temporal and frequency domain analysis of auditory paired stimuli processing in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Psychophysiology,49(4):522-530.

Ethridge, L.E., Hamm, J.P., Shapiro, J.R., Thaker, G., Summerfelt, A.T., Keedy, S.K., Stevens, M.C., Pearlson, G., Boutros, N.N., Tamminga, C.A., Sweeney, J.A., Keshavan, M.S., Clementz, B.A. (2012). Neural activations during auditory oddball processing discriminating schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry,72(9):766-774.

Ethridge, L.E., Moratti, S., Gao, Y., Keil, A., Clementz, B.A. (2011). Sustained versus transient brain responses in schizophrenia: The role of intrinsic neural activity. Schizophrenia Research, 133:106-111.

Knight, J.B., Ethridge, L.E., Marsh, R.L., Clementz, B.A. (2010). Neural correlates of attentional and mnemonic processing in event-based prospective memory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Feb.9; 4:5. doi:10.3389/neuro.09.005.2010

Hamm, J.P., Dyckman,.K.A., Ethridge., L.E., McDowell., J.E., Clementz, B.A. (2010). Preparatory activations across a distributed cortical network determine production of express saccades in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(21): 7350-7.

Ethridge, L.E., Brahmbhatt, S., Gao, Y., McDowell, J.E., Clementz, B.A. (2009). Consider the context: blocked versus interleaved presentation of antisaccade trials. Psychophysiology, 46(5): 1100-7.

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